The significance of rigorous training and nutrition is universally acknowledged in the quest for athletic excellence. Yet, one critical component often remains left up to hope and chance: SLEEP. Described by sleep expert Dr. Matthew Walker as "the greatest legal performance-enhancing drug," sleep is a vital element in an athlete's repertoire. 

However, how many coaches know or understand how well their athletes slept last night or sleep overall? We often ask, “How are you doing?” Which is often met with the response the athlete thinks we want to hear. What if you asked, “How did you sleep last night?” Imagine how the question alone shines a light on the importance of sleep and the opportunity for better engagement after asking.

This article explores the multifaceted role of sleep in enhancing athletic performance and how XA Score emerges as a pivotal tool in cultivating a strong sleep culture within athletic programs. It also differentiates itself from other sleep-tracking tools, making it useful at any level of athletics. Sleep is no less important to children than it is to collegiate athletes.  

What is sleep culture? In an athletic program, it refers to the collective habits, attitudes, and values surrounding sleep among athletes and coaches. It's about creating an environment where quality sleep is prioritized, understood, and actively pursued for optimal performance and well-being.

Let's dive into how sleep, an often-overlooked aspect, can be the game-changer in your program.

Understanding Sleep’s Multidimensional Role

Recent research underscores that sleep is far more than a mere period of rest. It's a complex process integral to muscle recovery, cognitive function, and emotional well-being. As athletes push their limits, sleep becomes the unsung hero in their recovery process. Poor sleep quality and reduced duration not only hamper muscle growth but also impact mood, decision-making, and overall performance. XA Score, with its nuanced approach, addresses these multifaceted needs, tailoring sleep understanding to each athlete's unique profile. Teams in their third year with XA Score saw a 46% increase in winning, benefiting from a direct correlation of sleep’s winning edge: Tweet with Article.

Sleep and Mental Health

Championing mental resilience in athletes starts with prioritizing restorative sleep. Restorative sleep is a cornerstone in enhancing memory consolidation and learning, crucial for athletes to internalize strategies and refine skills. As Dr. Gina Poe from the UCLA Brain Institute emphasizes, deep sleep phases are instrumental in processing and embedding new information, directly impacting an athlete's ability to adapt and grow.

Moreover, the role of sleep in emotional regulation cannot be overstated. Adequate sleep aids in managing stress, anxiety, and mood, key factors in maintaining an athlete's mental health and resilience. This is particularly important in the high-pressure environment of competitive sports, where psychological well-being is as critical as physical fitness.

Quality sleep, characterized by its restfulness and depth, leads to improved mental clarity and mood regulation. As sleep expert Dr. Matthew Walker points out, achieving regular, undisturbed deep sleep is essential for emotional and psychological recovery, underscoring its importance in an athlete's overall mental health strategy.

Sleep and Muscle Recovery

In the athletic realm, muscle recovery and growth are paramount. Sleep plays a crucial role in this process. It's during sleep that crucial metabolic processes occur, including the storage of blood glucose as muscle glycogen, a key energy source for muscles. Hormonal fluctuations during sleep, such as changes in cortisol and testosterone levels, significantly impact muscle synthesis and recovery. For example, during sleep, a decrease in cortisol, a stress hormone, aids in muscle repair, while an increase in testosterone supports muscle growth. 

Understanding these hormonal changes can help athletes optimize their sleep for better recovery. A deep sleep state each night plays a critical role in the release of growth hormone, which is crucial for muscle repair and recovery. 

By incorporating these physiological insights, the XA Score helps athletes optimize their sleep for maximum recovery and growth.

Challenges in Measuring Sleep

Recent comments by Dr. Rhonda Patrick highlight a significant challenge in sleep analysis. Many athletes rely on wearable devices to track their sleep, yet these devices often fall short of capturing the nuanced aspects of sleep quality. Dr. Patrick suggests that how one feels upon waking is a more reliable gauge of sleep quality, underscoring the importance of subjective assessment – an approach central to the XA Score methodology.

While wearable technology offers a convenient way to track sleep, its limitations highlight the importance of XA Score's approach, which combines objective data with athletes' subjective feedback, offering a more comprehensive understanding of sleep health.

Insufficient Sleep Syndrome and Athletes

The consequences of inadequate sleep extend far beyond tiredness. As outlined in a study by Jun Kohyama, “Which is More Important for Health: Sleep Quantity or Sleep Quality?” In it, he discusses how insufficient sleep can lead to decreased cognitive functioning, emotional regulation issues, and increased risk of injuries – all detrimental to an athlete's performance and career. Recognizing these risks, XA Score includes parameters that help coaches and athletes monitor, evaluate, and improve sleep quantity and quality.

The Paramount Importance of Sleep Quality

Emerging research, including the conclusions from Kohyama, underscores the superiority of sleep quality over quantity in reflecting health and functioning. Factors such as total sleep quantity, feeling refreshed upon waking, and daytime alertness are crucial determinants of sleep quality. XA Score incorporates these elements, allowing athletes to accurately report their sleep experiences, leading to more effective interventions and improved sleep habits.

Develop Your Program’s Sleep Culture - Then Measure and Improve It

With XA Score, in less than 10 seconds a day, you gain a multitude of data points that will clearly identify how your program sleeps. From there, you build around the data with education tied to the countless incentives for athletes. 

Your athletes must take ownership of their sleep habits to foster a strong sleep culture. They can be compelled to do so by understanding the many incentives:

  1. Overall better mental health and your process for dealing with adversity.
  2. Optimize your physical recovery and muscle repair.
  3. Enhance your memory consolidation and learning efficiency.
  4. Reduce your risk of injury and illness.
  5. Improving the way you feel on a day-to-day basis.
  6. Improve your cognitive function.
  7. Balance emotional states and reduce your stress.
  8. Improve your reaction times and decision-making skills.

There is research and science behind the power of sleep on an athlete’s willpower. A well-rested athlete is better poised to exercise willpower and tenacity - essential traits for fending off detrimental habits and making reasonable decisions.

Since Sleep Quality is such an integral part of health, functioning, and performance, you will need to lead your athletes to consider some recommendations to answer the Daily Check-In question best. The top three parameters to consider when answering the question on a scale of 1-5 are:

  1. Were you asleep for most of the night?
  2. What is your feeling upon awakening? Were you still tired or felt rested when you woke?
  3. What is your daytime feeling? How have you felt so far through the day? Have you felt tired or in a good/awake state?

Because of these recommended parameters, it is better to ask your athletes to complete their Daily Check-in some hours into the day. Most of our teams have a 9:00 am to 12:00 pm window for their Daily Check-in expectations. Completing the Daily Check-In a few hours into the day allows athletes to assess the impact of their sleep on their current state more accurately, leading to more reliable and actionable data.

XA Score is a catalyst in this journey, offering a simple yet powerful way to gather insights and foster a proactive approach to sleep management within your program.

The XA Score Sleep Score learns from each individual's daily inputs, providing feedback and direction. When you tie last night's sleep discipline to today’s feeling, soreness, and weight, you receive feedback that reinforces your sleep and recovery choices immediately and throughout the day. The data grows in its power to define your sleep culture every day. It is straightforward to measure. Then, by education and feedback, you collectively work to improve it. 

The most important aspect of this is the empowerment of athletes to strive for extreme ownership in pursuit of their full potential. The overall strength of your program’s culture can be defined by what your athletes do away from the program. When they make good decisions within the four pillars of XA Score’s Readiness (Nutrition, Hydration, Sleep, and Recovery), you will see this in their Sleep Score and overall XA Score. This progress can be measured by individuals, position groups, or competition teams, as well as across your entire program.

By embracing a strong sleep culture, athletes take extreme ownership of their well-being, directly influencing their readiness and performance both on and off the field. As coaches, it's our responsibility to lead by example and educate our athletes about the profound impact of sleep. Let's work together to build a sleep culture that empowers our athletes to reach their full potential.

Sleep Guidelines - Dr. Andrew Huberman Sleep Toolkit

Dr. Andrew Huberman, professor of Neurobiology and Ophthalmology at Stanford University, has collaborated with Dr. Walker, Dr. Poe, and other experts in the field to develop a Toolkit for Sleep

“Sleep is the foundation of our mental and physical health and performance in all endeavors,” says Dr. Huberman. It is equally important to say this toolkit is just as valuable to coaches as it is to athletes. 

Here are the key points you can use to educate your athletes (and coaching staff) to develop and improve your program’s sleep culture:

  1. View sunlight by going outside within 30-60 minutes of waking. Do that again in the afternoon, prior to sunset.
  2. Wake up at the same time each day and go to sleep when you first start to feel sleepy.
  3. Avoid caffeine within 8-10 hours of bedtime.
  4. If you have sleep disturbances, insomnia, or anxiety about sleep, try the research-supported protocols on the Reveri app (for iPhone)
  5. Avoid viewing bright lights - especially bright overhead lights between 10 pm and 4 am.
  6. Limit daytime naps to less than 90 min, or don’t nap at all.
  7. If you wake up in the middle of the night (which, by the way, is normal to do once or so each night) but if you can’t fall back asleep, consider doing an NSDR protocol when you wake up.
  8. Expect to feel really alert 1 hour before your natural bedtime.
  9. Keep the room you sleep in cool and dark, and layer on blankets that you can remove.
  10. Drinking alcohol messes up your sleep. As do most sleep medications.
  11. Kids (and indeed all of us) have changing sleep needs over time. Adjust accordingly.
  12. You might consider taking (30-60 min before bed):
-- 145mg Magnesium Threonate or 200mg Magnesium Bisglycinate
-- 50mg Apigenin
-- 100-400mg Theanine
-- (3-4 nights per week I also take 2g of Glycine and 100mg GABA.)
-- **Review the additional information on supplements before making any recommendation to your athletes.

With improved sleep culture, you should see better sleep quality from your athletes. This awareness has a butterfly effect.  The XA Sleep Score can help athletes recognize good habits while coaches see correlations between good sleep statistics and not just identifying the problems with the program’s current sleep culture. 

XA Score: Tailoring Sleep Assessment for Athletes

The XA Score's methodology aligns with the latest research findings, offering a nuanced and individualized approach to sleep assessment. It goes beyond mere tracking, providing actionable insights and feedback that help athletes and coaches make informed decisions about sleep routines and environments. XA Score changes daily habits and positively impacts behavior. By focusing on both sleep quality and quantity, the XA Score helps fine-tune athletes' sleep patterns, contributing to enhanced recovery, better performance, and overall well-being.

XA Score uniquely blends objective data with subjective feedback, enabling a tailored approach to each athlete's sleep needs. This method tracks sleep patterns and provides a system of continuous improvement in sleep quality and athletic performance.


The value of understanding and optimizing sleep in athletic performance cannot be overstated. XA Score is a vital tool for coaches and athletic programs to monitor sleep and cultivate a proactive sleep culture. By prioritizing sleep, coaches can unlock the full potential of their athletes, paving the way for individual and team success. In the dynamic world of sports, where marginal gains often make the difference, embracing the XA Score could be the key to gaining that competitive edge.

Let's start shaping a sleep culture that champions our athletes' health and performance.

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